They readily lose their two outermost electrons to form cations with charge +2. Figure \(\sf{\PageIndex{3}}\). Unlike the alkali metal, all the alkaline earth metals react with oxygen to give oxides of formula MO, although the peroxides of the heavier alkaline earths can be formed by solution phase precipitation of the metal cation with a source of peroxide anion (O22-). 6. The chemistries of magnesium and beryllium demonstrates the danger of drawing an overly rigorous distinction between elements as metals, nonmetals, and metalloids. Group 2: the alkaline earth metals Physical Properties Metals Halides, oxides, hydroxides, salts of oxoacids Complex ions in aqueous solution Complexes with … The expected decomposition order of the alkaline earth metal sulfates along with known decomposition temperatures is, \[\sf{\underset{580~^{\circ}C}{BeSO_4}~<~\underset{895~^{\circ}C}{MgSO_4}~<~\underset{1149~^{\circ}C}{CaSO_4}~<~\underset{1374~^{\circ}C}{SrSO_4}~<~BaSO_4~<~RaSO_4}\]. 8.6.1: Alkaline Earth Metals' Chemical Properties, https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/2/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FBookshelves%2FInorganic_Chemistry%2FMap%253A_Inorganic_Chemistry_(Miessler_Fischer_Tarr)%2F08%253A_Chemistry_of_the_Main_Group_Elements%2F8.06%253A_Group_2_The_Alkaline_Earth_Metals%2F8.6.01%253A_8.4.2._Alkaline_Earth_Metals'_Chemical_Properties, 8.6.1: Preparation and General Properties of the Alkaline Earth Elements. \[\sf{MCO_3(s)~~\overset{\Delta}{\longrightarrow}~MO(s)~~+~~CO_2(g)}\], \[\sf{M(NO_3)_2(s)~~\overset{\Delta}{\longrightarrow}~MO(s)~~+~~2~NO_2(g)~~+~~O_2(g)}\]. The reaction is dependent on the presence of the Lewis base donor ethers like Et2O or THF, which coordinates the Mg2+, completing its coordination sphere, giving tetrahedral complexes like that depicted in Scheme \(\sf{\PageIndex{II}}\). Evolutionary structure searches are coupled with density functional theory calculations to predict the most stable stoichiometries and structures of beryllium and barium polyhydrides, MHn with n > 2 and M = Be/Ba, under pressure. They also form clusters in which the lone halogen lone pairs are used to bridge multiple Mg centers, as illustrated by the complex in Scheme \(\sf{\PageIndex{III}}\). They have a gray-white lustre when freshly cut but tarnish readily in air, particularly the heavier members of the group. Structure of monomeric "RMgX" Grignard reagent in THF solution. At higher temperatures the polymeric chains dissociate into Be2Cl4 dimers and BeCl2 monomers. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! Missed the LibreFest? 3. \[\sf{2~M(s)~~+~~O_2~\longrightarrow~~2~MO(s)~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~(M~=~Be,~Mg,~Ca,~Sr,~Ba,~and~presumably~Ra)}\], \[\sf{M(OH)_2(aq)~~+~~H_2O_2(aq)~\longrightarrow~~MO_2(s)~~+~~2~H_2O~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~(M~=~Mg,~Ca,~Sr,~Ba,~and~presumably~Ra)}\]. Lithium (Li) Melting Point:453.69K/ 180.54°C Boiling Point:1615K/ 1342°C Density:0.534g/cm³ Atomic Mass:6.94 Atomic Number:3 Sodium (Na) Melting Point:370.87K/ 97.72°C Boiling Point:1156K/ 883°C Density:0.968g/cm³ Atomic Mass:22.99 Atomic Number:11 Chemical properties of all Presumably Ca, Sr, Ba, and Ra would react this way as well, although due to their higher reactivity the reaction is likely to be violent. Calcium, strontium, barium, (and (presumably radium), which react with water to liberate dihydrogen gas and form hydroxides. \[\sf{MH_2(s)~~+~~H_2O(l)~~\rightarrow~M(OH)_2~~+~~H_2(g)~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~(M~=~Mg, Ca,~Sr,~Ba,~and~presumably~Ra)}\]. This is because both Be and Li can form compounds with considerable covalent character and, as might be expected from their relative paucity of electrons, they share much in common with the electron deficient row 13 metalloids B and Al. (e) Like alkali metals, alkaline earth metals predominantly form ionic bonds in their compounds but are less ionic than alkali metals. > Relate an element’s chemical properties to … Alkali Metals' Chemical Properties.Because of their tendency to form +2 cations, the alkaline earth metals are good reducing agents. \[\sf{M(s)~~+~~X_2^-~~\rightarrow~MX_2~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~(M~=~Be,~Mg, Ca,~Sr,~Ba,~and~presumably~Ra; X~=~F,~Cl,~Br,~I)}\], \[\sf{M(OH)_2~~+~~2~HX~~\rightarrow~MX_2~~+~~2~H_2O~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~(M~=~Mg, Ca,~Sr,~Ba,~and~presumably~Ra; X~=~F,~Cl,~Br,~I)}\], \[\sf{MO~~+~~2~HX~~\rightarrow~MX_2~~+~~H_2O~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~(M~=~Mg, Ca,~Sr,~Ba,~and~presumably~Ra; X~=~F,~Cl,~Br,~I)}\]. Like the alkali metals, Ca, Sr, and Ba dissolve in liquid ammonia to give solutions containing solvated electrons, although these have not been as heavily studied as those of the alkali metals. Since the alkali metals are the most electropositive (the least electronegative) of elements, they react with a great variety of nonmetals. E. Horwood: New York, 1990, pg. Alkali metal carbonates and nitrates thermally decompose to release CO2 and a mixture of NO2 & O2, respectively. 7. Alkali Metals' Chemical Properties, information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org, not reported; unstable at room temperature (298 K). The typical explanation for this trend involves the mechanism of carbonate decomposition depicted in Scheme \(\sf{\PageIndex{II}}\). Chemical Science 2020, 11 (21), 5415-5422. 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